Watch: In 1997, a game of chess changed the face of artificial intelligence forever

Garry Kasparov's defeat to IBM's supercomputer Deep Blue made artificial intelligence an uncomfortable reality.

Garry Kasparov is a chess prodigy from Azerbaijan and a five-time world champion. On May 11, 1997, the world’s (then) greatest chess player in history was defeated by the IBM supercomputer, Deep Blue.

At that moment, artificial intelligence became an uncomfortable and yet ground-breaking reality.

Computers that could play chess had existed since the 1950s, but until 1985, they had little luck playing against humans. Feng-hsing Hsu, a student at Carnegie Mellon, developed a computer called Chiptest in 1985, which was designed to play chess at a more advanced level. In 1989, Hsu and a classmate went on to join a team of scientists led by CJ Tan at IBM that was working on developing Deep Blue, the supercomputer.

The scientists at IBM wanted to imitate the kind of thought patterns, the strong calculation and intuition that chess players rely on and develop over time. Kasparov, at the same time, became the youngest world champion at the age of 22.

In 1996, an arrogant Kasparov scoffed at the idea of a machine beating him, and defeated Deep Blue in their first chess series, declaring the superiority of human intelligence over artificial. He did, however, lose the first game before winning three and drawing two.

IBM then went back to work on Deep Blue, this time incorporating algorithms that could learn from older moves, thus bringing artificial intelligence even closer to resembling the human mind. By now, the supercomputer could calculate as many as 100 to 200 billion moves in the time a player got at the time to make a move.

In May, 1997, IBM challenged Kasparov once again with the new and improved Deep Blue. After six games, from May 3 to May 11, artificial intelligence won over human intelligence, marking one of the ground-breaking moments in the history of computer science, and of mankind.

Kasparov blamed his defeat on a single move by the computer, which, fifteen years later, turned out to be a bug in the computer’s software. This was pointed out in a book titled The Signal and the Noise published by New York Times journalist Nate Silver.

That single move, he said, was so sophisticated that it unsettled him. The move turned out to be completely random, caused by the bug. However, there is no saying that Kasparov would have won the match otherwise.

We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
Sponsored Content BY 

Not just for experts: How videography is poised for a disruption

Digital solutions are making sure it’s easier than ever to express your creativity in moving images.

Where was the last time you saw art? Chances are on a screen, either on your phone or your computer. Stunning photography and intricate doodles are a frequent occurrence in the social feeds of many. That’s the defining feature of art in the 21st century - it fits in your pocket, pretty much everyone’s pocket. It is no more dictated by just a few elite players - renowned artists, museum curators, art critics, art fair promoters and powerful gallery owners. The digital age is spawning creators who choose to be defined by their creativity more than their skills. The negligible incubation time of digital art has enabled experimentation at staggering levels. Just a few minutes of browsing on the online art community, DeviantArt, is enough to gauge the scope of what digital art can achieve.

Sure enough, in the 21st century, entire creative industries are getting democratised like never before. Take photography, for example. Digital photography enabled everyone to capture a memory, and then convert it into personalised artwork with a plethora of editing options. Apps like Instagram reduced the learning curve even further with its set of filters that could lend character to even unremarkable snaps. Prisma further helped to make photos look like paintings, shaving off several more steps in the editing process. Now, yet another industry is showing similar signs of disruption – videography.

Once burdened by unreliable film, bulky cameras and prohibitive production costs, videography is now accessible to anyone with a smartphone and a decent Internet bandwidth. A lay person casually using social media today has so many video types and platforms to choose from - looping Vine videos, staccato Musical.lys, GIFs, Instagram stories, YouTube channels and many more. Videos are indeed fast emerging as the next front of expression online, and so are the digital solutions to support video creation.

One such example is Vizmato, an app which enables anyone with a smartphone to create professional-looking videos minus the learning curve required to master heavy, desktop software. It makes it easy to shoot 720p or 1080p HD videos with a choice of more than 40 visual effects. This fuss- free app is essentially like three apps built into one - a camcorder with live effects, a feature-rich video editor and a video sharing platform.

With Vizmato, the creative process starts at the shooting stage itself as it enables live application of themes and effects. Choose from hip hop, noir, haunted, vintage and many more.

The variety of filters available on Vizmato
The variety of filters available on Vizmato

Or you can simply choose to unleash your creativity at the editing stage; the possibilities are endless. Vizmato simplifies the core editing process by making it easier to apply cuts and join and reverse clips so your video can flow exactly the way you envisioned. Once the video is edited, you can use a variety of interesting effects to give your video that extra edge.

The RGB split, Inset and Fluidic effects.
The RGB split, Inset and Fluidic effects.

You can even choose music and sound effects to go with your clip; there’s nothing like applause at the right moment, or a laugh track at the crack of the worst joke.

Or just annotated GIFs customised for each moment.

Vizmato is the latest offering from Global Delight, which builds cross-platform audio, video and photography applications. It is the Indian developer that created award-winning iPhone apps such as Camera Plus, Camera Plus Pro and the Boom series. Vizmato is an upgrade of its hugely popular app Game Your Video, one of the winners of the Macworld Best of Show 2012. The overhauled Vizmato, in essence, brings the Instagram functionality to videos. With instant themes, filters and effects at your disposal, you can feel like the director of a sci-fi film, horror movie or a romance drama, all within a single video clip. It even provides an in-built video-sharing platform, Popular, to which you can upload your creations and gain visibility and feedback.


So, whether you’re into making the most interesting Vines or shooting your take on Ed Sheeran’s ‘Shape of You’, experience for yourself how Vizmato has made video creation addictively simple. Android users can download the app here and iOS users will have their version in January.

This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of Vizmato and not by the Scroll editorial team.